Drought and Desertification in the Mediterranean: The role of BONEX

Drought and Desertification in the Mediterranean: The role of BONEX

Drought and Desertification in the Mediterranean: The role of BONEX

Reading time: 3

The Mediterranean region faces significant challenges posed by drought and desertification, which have severe socio-economic and environmental consequences. These issues are exacerbated by climate change, putting further pressure on limited water resources and fragile ecosystems. On the occasion of the United Nations Day to Combat Drought and Desertification, it is crucial to highlight the importance of addressing these problems and the role that innovative initiatives like BONEX can play in finding sustainable solutions.

Importance of Drought and Desertification in the Mediterranean

Drought and desertification have profound impacts on the Mediterranean region, which is considered one of the regions of the globe with the highest socioeconomic exposure to droughts. Because of climate change, rising temperatures and decreasing precipitation, the frequency and severity of droughts have increased. A recent report on drought in the western Mediterranean from the JRC’s Copernicus Global Drought Observatory highlights the severity of water scarcity in the western Mediterranean region. From May 2022 to April 2023, temperatures in northern Morocco, Algeria, southern Spain, southern France, and northern Italy reached up to 2.5°C, and sometimes even 4°C, above the average. The conditions observed in late spring 2023 were even more alarming compared to 2022, as a severe-to-extreme drought persisted across Europe, impacting vital sectors such as water resources, agriculture, and energy production.

Soil water content is below the seasonal average, and irrigation reservoirs are well below capacity. All of this results in reduced agricultural productivity, land degradation, and ecosystem disruption. These challenges pose a threat to the livelihoods of communities, food security, biodiversity, and overall sustainable development.

The BONEX Project’s Contribution

The WEFE Nexus approach is based on an understanding of the synergies and trade-offs between competing uses of water, land, and energy-related resources. The BONEX Project emerges as a pioneering initiative aimed at tackling the complex interdependencies between water, energy, food, and ecosystems (WEFE Nexus) in the Mediterranean. In a field where practical experience in the implementation of the WEFE nexus is still limited, with much of the work being theoretical, the BONEX Project stands as an innovative endeavour. By spearheading practical implementation and bridging the gap between theory and action, our work not only contributes to addressing drought and desertification but also paves the way for others to navigate the uncharted territory of WEFE nexus implementation.

First and foremost, the BONEX Project recognizes the need for robust governance structures and practices in natural resources management. It emphasizes the integration of governance improvements alongside technological advancements. Through its seven demonstration projects, the BONEX Project fosters collaboration and coordination among diverse stakeholders, bridging knowledge gaps and sharing lessons learnt during practical implementation of the WEFE Nexus.

One of the key contributions of the BONEX Project lies in the development of the WEFE Framework (WEFeF) and context-specific Nexus Bridging Plans (NBPs). These plans are tailored to the unique socio-economic contexts and innovative technologies prevalent in the Mediterranean. By aligning strategies and policies with the region’s socio-ecological and cultural diversity, the BONEX Project ensures a holistic and inclusive approach to co-create solutions and evaluate different alternatives to combat drought and desertification.

Furthermore, the BONEX Project places significant emphasis on socio-economic assessment, recognizing the importance of understanding the local context and engaging communities in decision-making processes. This approach helps to identify trade-offs, synergies, and potential conflicts that may arise in implementing WEFE Nexus solutions. It also ensures that the benefits and costs of these solutions are equitably distributed, leaving no one behind.


As we commemorate the United Nations Day to Combat Drought and Desertification, it is imperative to recognize the urgency of addressing these challenges in the Mediterranean. The BONEX Project offers innovative approaches to tackle the complex issues of water scarcity, drought, and desertification. Through its focus on the WEFE Nexus, robust governance, and context-specific solutions, the project contributes to building resilience, promoting sustainability, and safeguarding the well-being of communities and ecosystems in the Mediterranean region. Let us embrace the lessons learned from the BONEX Project and join hands in combating drought and desertification for a more prosperous and sustainable future.

Has it been interesting for you?